ارزیابی و رتبه بندی استراتژی های تأثیر گذار در شهر هوشمند برای موفقیت شرکت های همکار شهرداری تهران با روش نظریه داده بنیاد

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه پیام نور، واحد تهران غرب

2 استادیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس (نویسندۀ مسئول)

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشگاه پیام نور، واحد تهران غرب

چکیده

 با‌توجه‌به روند رو‌به‌افزایش جمعیت ‌شهرها، ایجاد شهرهای هوشمند در دنیای پیشرفتۀ امروز اجتناب‌ناپذیر است. توسعۀ شهر هوشمند طرحی پویاست که منابع فناوری اطلاعات سازمان‌ها و شرکت‌های وابسته به آن‌ها را در راستای حمایت و پیشبرد اهدافشان بسیج می‌کند. با‌توجه‌به تجربیات جهانی که در آن‌ شهرداری‌ها، محور توسعه در ایجاد شهرهای هوشمند بوده ‌است، پژوهش حاضر با محوریت شهرداری تهران در نظر گرفته شده است؛ همچنین با‌توجه‌به نیاز شرکت‌های فناوری اطلاعات به ارزیابی استراتژی‌های مؤثر برای افزایش بازدهی‌شان، کسب موفقیتشان در بازار هدف و رفع نیازهای شهروندان، این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی استراتژی‌های این شرکت‌ها در جهت توسعۀ کلان‌شهر تهران به‌عنوان شهر هوشمند، به نگارش درآمده است. این تحقیق دارای رویکرد توصیفی‌کیفی است و از راهبرد پژوهشی نظریۀ داده‌بنیاد به تحلیل داده‌ها می‌پردازد‌. پژوهش حاضر، مفاهیمی مانند استراتژی عملیاتی، استراتژی تصمیم‌گیری، استراتژی نیروی انسانی، استراتژی بازاریابی، استراتژی مالی و تمرکز استراتژیک را که از جمله اصلی‌ترین استراتژی‌های توسعۀ شهر هوشمند است، پیشنهاد داده است که در حوزه‌های زیر، این عوامل مناسب شناخته شده ‌است:
1. در حوزۀ استراتژی تصمیم‌گیری، عامل تصمیم‌گیری مشورتی؛
2. در حوزۀ استراتژی عملیاتی، عامل‌های نوآوری، مدیریت عملکرد و فرایند؛
3. در حوزۀ استراتژی مالی، عامل‌های مدیریت مالی، رهبری هزینه و واگذاری خدمت؛
4. در حوزۀ استراتژی نیروی انسانی، عامل‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی، فرهنگ سازمانی، آموزش، مدیریت شایستگی و مدیریت مشارکتی؛
5. در حوزۀ استراتژی بازاریابی، عامل‌های مدیریت بازار، خدمات پس از فروش، کاربران و قیمت‌گذاری و فروش؛
6. در حوزۀ استراتژی تمرکز، عامل تولید متمرکز.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and Ranking of Effective Strategies in the Smart City for Success of the Partners of the Municipality of Tehran by the Grounded Theory Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Houshang Tajfar 1
  • Ali Shayan 2
  • Marziyeh Pourmoghadasi 3
1 Associate Professor of Payame Noor University, West Tehran branch
2 Associate Professor of Tarbiat Modares University(corresponding author)
3 MA. Student of IT Management, Payame Noor University, West Tehran branch
چکیده [English]

According to the increasing population of the metropolises, creating smart cities is an inevitable issue in the modern world today. Smart city development is a dynamic design which mobilizes the IT sources of organizations and their affiliated companies in support of and advancement of their goals. Considering the global experiences in which municipalities have been the focus of development in the creation of smart cities and have the most connection with the citizens; this research is focused on the Tehran municipality and also based upon the need for these companies develop a strategic framework to increase their efficiency, and their success in the target market, and meet the needs of citizens. Therefore, this research has been written in order to develop the strategies of these companies for the development of Tehran’s metropolis as a smart city.
 This research has a descriptive-qualitative approach and it analyzes the data from the research strategy of data-grounded theory. The present research has proposed concepts such as operational strategy, decision strategy, work force strategy, marketing strategy, financial strategy and strategic focus, which are among the main strategies for smart city development; In the area of decision-making strategy, the decision-making factor of advisory; and in the area of operational strategy, innovation, performance management and process factors; and in the area of financial strategy, Financial Management, Cost leadership, Outsourcing factors; and in the area of work force strategy, Human resources management, Organizational Culture, Education, Competency Management, Participatory Management factors; and in the area of marketing strategy, market management, after sales service, users, Pricing and Sales factors; and in the area of strategic focus, Focused production, are identified as appropriate strategies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Strategy
  • Smart City
  • Smart City Strategy
  • Strategic Management
  • Information Technology

آرمسترانگ، مایکل (1391). مدیریت استراتژیک منابع انسانی (سیدمحمد اعرابی و امید مهدیه، مترجمان). تهران: دفتر پژوهش‌های فرهنگی.

استراوس، آنسلم؛ و کوربین، جولیت (1385). اصول روش تحقیق کیفی (بیوک محمدی، مترجم). تهران: پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی.

خداداد حسینی، سیدحمید؛ و عزیزی، شهریار (1385). مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک؛ رویکردی جامع. تهران: صفار.

دانایی‌فرد، حسن؛ الوانی، سیدمهدی؛ و آذر، عادل (1391). روش‌شناسی پژوهش کیفی در مدیریت؛ رویکردی جامع. تهران: اشراقی.

Antonucci, T., & Pianta, M. (2002). Employment effects of product and process innovation in Europe. International Review of Applied Economics, 16 (3), 295-307.

Ardianto, D. (2013). The Role of Knowledge Management Governance. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 133-137.

Arez. C., & ozkarahan. I. (2006). supplier evaluation and management system for strategic sourcing based a new multi- criteria. international journal of production economics.

Amoako-Gyampahi, K., & Acquaah, M. (2008). Manufacturing strategy, competitive strategy and firm performance: An empirical study in a developing economy environment. International Journal of Production Economics, 575–592.

Abell, D. F. (1980). Defining The Business: The Starting Point of Strategic Planning. New York: Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Kogan Page.

Bottoni. E., & rizzi. A. (2008). adapted multi-criteria approach to suppliers and product selection and application oriented to lead–time reduction. International journal production economics, 111(2), 763-781.

Bai, B., Law, R., & Wen, I. (2008). The Impact of Website Quality on Customer Satisfactionand Purchase Intentions: Evidence from Online Chinese Visitors. International Of Hospitality Management, 27(6), 391-408.

Bagnoli, C., & Giachetti, C. (2015). Aligning knowledge strategy and competitive strategy in small firms. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 16(3), 571-598.

Buyukozkan .G., Feyzioglu .O., & nebol. E. (2008). selection of the supplier alliance partner in logistics value cahin. international journal of production economics, 113(1), 148–158.

Bell, S. J., & Menguc, B. (2002). The employee organization relationship, organizational citizenship behaviors, and superior service quality, organizational climate culture (Brief Article). Journal of Retailing, 78(2), 131-146.

Buelens, M., & Devos, G. (2004). Art and wisdom in choosing change strategies: a critical reflection; in dynamics of organizational change and learning (Bootstrap). New Jersey: John Wiley.

Bharadwaj, A.S. (2000). A resource-based perspective on information technology capability and firm performance: An Empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly, 169-196.

Boonstra, J. (2004). Dynamics of organizational change and learning. New Jersey: John Wiley.

Chanopas, A. (2006). Managing information technology infrastructure: a new flexibility framework. Management Research News, (29).

Cai, S., & Jun, M. (2003). Internet Users’ Perceptions of Online Service Quality: A Comparison of Online Buyers and Information Searchers. Managing Service Quality, 13(6), 504–519.

Carlson, J., & Ocass, A. (2010). Exploring the Relationships Between E-Service Quality, Satisfaction, Attitudes and Behaviours in Content-Driven E-Service Web Sites. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(2), 112–127.

Chesbrough, H.W. (2006). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Harvard Business Press.

Cronin, J.J., & Taylor, S.A. (1992). Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension. Journal of Marketing, 56 (7), 55-68.

CheZuriana, M. J., & Rapiah, M. (2011). Performance Measurement System (PMS) In Small Medium Enterprises (SMES): A Practical Modified Framework. World Journal of Social Sciences, 1(3), 200-212.

Chang, L. Ch., & Liu, Ch. H. (2008). Employee empowerment, innovative behavior and job productivity of public health nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45, 1442–1448.

Enakrire , T.R., Oneynania , O.G. (2007). Factors affecting the development of Information Infrastructure in Africa. Library Hi Tech News, 24(2), 15-20.

Ensign, P. C. (2008). Small business strategy as a dynamic process: Concepts, controversies, and implications. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 20(2), 25.

Eardley, A., Marshall, D.V. & Ritchie, R.L. (1991). Management information systems. London: Longman.

Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2013). Employee empowerment, employee attitudes, and performance: testing a causal model. Public Administration Review, 73(3), 490-506.

Frost & Sullivan. (2014). Strategic Opportunity Analysis of the Global Smart City Market. Russia: CIS, CEE.

French, W. L., Bell, C. H., & Zawacki, R. A. (2005). Organization development and transformation: Managing effective change. USA: McGraw Hill Irwin.

Hameresh, R.G., & Silk, S. (1983). How to Compete in Stagnant Industries. strategic management. New York: john wily and sons, Inc.

Hall, W. (1980). Survival Strategies in a Hostile Environment. New York: john wily and sons, Inc.

Hunger, D., Wheelen, T. L. (2000). Essentials of Strategic Management. London: Prentice Hall.

Hollenson, S. (2001). Global Marketing: A Market-Responsive Approach. London: Prentice Hall.

Hofsted&  Geer (1980). Cultures consequences. Sago Beverly Hills.

Hogan, S., & Coote, L. (2013). Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: A test of Schein's model. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1609–1621.

Jenster, P. V. & Pedersen, H. S. (2000). Outsourcing-facts and fiction, Strategic Change.

Jiang, J., Y., Sun, L., Y., & Kenneth, S. L. (2011). Job satisfaction and organization structure as moderators of the effects of empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior: a self-consistency and social exchange perspective. International Journal of Management, 28(3), 675-693.

Kostiwa, I. M., & Meeks, S. (2009). The relation between psychological empowerment, service quality, and job satisfaction among certified nursing assistants. Clinical Gerontologist, (3), 276-292.

Kalkan, A., Erdil, O., & Çetinkaya, O. (2011). The relationships between firm size, prospector strategy,architecture of information technology and firm performance, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. International Strategic Management Conference, 854–869.

Laffman, Lea, G., Sanderson, E., & Kenny, S. (1996). Brain Strategic management: an analytical introduction. Massachusetts:  Blackwell.

Lacity, M. C., Khan, S. A. & Willcocks, L. P. (2009). A review of the IT outsourcing literature: Insights for practice. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems.

Levitt. T. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business Review, 92-102.

Luthanse. F. (1980). Organization Behavier. New York: McGraw Hill.

Lam, A. (2010). Innovative organizations: Structure, learning and adaptation; Innovation Perspectives for the 21st Century, Madrid: BBVA, Spain.

Main, D. & Lambert, J.C. (1998). Improving your decision-making. Business and Economic Review Columbia, (44), 9-12.

Mintzberg, Henry (1994). The Fall and Rise of strategic planning. Harvard Business Review, 107-114.

Mullins, L. (1999). Management and organizational behavior. London: Prentice Hall.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation?. Oxford university press.

Ortega, M. J. (2010). Competitive strategies and firm performance:Technological capabilities' moderating roles. University of Castilla-La Mancha Spain. Journal of Business Research, 1273–1281.

Porter. M. E (1980). Cometitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and competitors, New York: Free Press.

Paroutis, S., Bennett, M., Heracleous ,L. (2014). A strategic view on smart city technology: The case of IBM Smarter Cities during a recession. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, (89), 262–272.

Roth, M. (2009). The Rental Equipment 100 Slows Down, Recession Marketing Strategy. Retrieved from:

Rajagopolan, N., Rasheed, A.M.A., & Datta, D.K. (1993). Strategic Decision Processes: Critical Review and Future Directions. Journal of Management, 19( 2), 349-384.

Schein, E. H (1997). Organizational Culture And Leadership. San Fransisco: Zed Jossy Bass.

Schwenk, C. R. (1995). Strategic decision making. Journal of Management, (21), 471-493.

Tapati Bandopadhyay, P. K. (2011). A Data-Driven View of the Evolving IT InfrastructureTechnologies and Options. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 297-304.

Vaxevanoua, A., & Konstantopoulosa. N., (2015). Basic Principles the Philosophy of Outsourcing. Madrid, Spain.

Vosburgh, V., & Resorts, M. (2008). The Evolution of HR: Developing HR as an Internal Consulting Organization. Journal of Human Resource Planning, 30(3), 11–23.

Wally, S., & Baum, J.R. (1994). Personal and structural determinants of the pace of strategic decision making. Academy of Management Journal, (37), 932-956.

Yeşil, S., & Kaya, A. (2012). The role of organizational culture on innovation capability: An empirical study, International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 6(1), 11-25.

Yovanof, G.S., Hazapis, G.N. (2009). An Architectural Framework and Enabling Wireless Technologies for Digital Cities & Intelligent Urban Enviroments, Wireless Pers Commun, (49), 445-463.

Zook, C., & Rigby, D. (2001). How to Think Strategically in a Recession?. Retrieved from: http://www.harvardbusiness.org/hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/2668.html/

Zoephel, M. (2011). Michael Porter's Competitive Advantage Theory: Focus Strategy for SMEs. GRIN Verlag GmbH.